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Uvda Dchol

‘Uvda dchol’ [literally work of the weekdays] the Rambam says it cannot mean that you cannot do what you during the week because then eating would be prohibited. There are three categories in the laws of ‘Uvda dchol’. One is that it is like one of the melachos, the second you might come to a melacha and the third is that it is a lot of work, all are called ‘shevus’. An example of the first type is ’borer’ selecting which is an av. A tolda is cleaning a liquid from its sediment. A liquid which is clear and you want to run it through a cloth if it makes like a hole {pocket} it is prohibited a ‘gezeira’ decree because you might come to do the melacha because this looks like the melacha of straining so it is an ‘Uvda dchol’. [Shabbos 138. Ramban perek 21 halacha 7] An example of the second type is cutting wood. If you cut small pieces to burn in a fire this is a tolda of ‘tochein’ grinding. [Shabbos 74.] Cutting wood into big pieces is not like ‘tochein’ however since all cutting wood first you make big pieces then you go to little pieces so the Chachamim made a decree as you might continue to cut into small pieces. [Magen Avraham Chapter 314 section 14] There might be another reason as people might suspect you that you are doing small pieces [maris ayin]. The same is true as you cannot attach fruit together as this is a tolda of ‘maamar’ gathering. If fruit was scattered in a courtyard you can gather them in your hand and eat them. However you cannot gather them in a basket. This is ‘uvda dichol’ as maybe he will press them together in a pot. [Shabbos 143:] The same is true with bundles of thyme, savory that were put away to eat, you can peel them with the tops of your fingers and eat them. However you cannot peel them a lot together which is an ‘uvda dichol’ as you might come to crush which is ‘dash’. [Shabbos 128] The same is true with grasses, you cannot soak them though they help sick people even though it is also eaten by healthy people and is permitted to be eaten on Shabbos, still soaking them is fixing it for a medicine and is therefore ‘uvda dchol’. This is prohibition as you might come to ‘shichikas sammamnim’ crushing spices with is prohibited as grinding. [Shabbos 140.] An example of the third case is clearing away four or five boxes of grain or straw for guests, and not more, because to do more would be considered burdensome. [Shabbos 126:]And similarly, when bringing a jar of wine or the like, they shouldn’t be brought in a basket or box, the people who normally carry with a pole on their shoulders should carry with a pole on their hands because it is burdensome. [like Beitzah 30.] There are many cases similar to the three that we just said and we will explain them later by each Melacha. In all such cases you’re puhtur not obligated according to the Torah but chayav obligated lashes according to the Rabanan. However, in our times, even if you do a shogeg unintentionally you’re chayav to fast for forty days and the night after you finish fasting you’re not allowed to eat meat or drink wine. Also you should give four and a half silver grashana coins three times to Tzedaka instead of a chatas. [Magen Avraham siman 334 sif kattan 33,34]

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